Beside its medical establishments, the beach quarter catered to the moneyed classes in the second half of the 19th century and slowly filled with grandiose villas, hotels and amenities. Among these were handsome casinos, of which the principal was the Eden, also known as the Grand Casino de la Plage, with its theatre and music hall. This was destroyed in 1944 but is survived by its equally gorgeous rival, the Kursaal.[15] The ambitious Cottage des Dunes, which tried to unite a luxury hotel and casino, failed commercially in 1913. After a brief spell as a hospital, it entered into official use.[16] Another official building that survived the bombing was the town hall, which was built in 1893 and has murals painted by Jan Lavezzari.[17]
The Mexican mural movement in the 1930s brought a new prominence to murals as a social and political tool. Diego Rivera, José Orozco and David Siqueiros were the most famous artists of the movement. Between 1932 and 1940, Rivera also painted murals in San Francisco, Detroit, and New York City. In 1933, he completed a famous series of twenty-seven fresco panels entitled Detroit Industry on the walls of an inner court at the Detroit Institute of Arts.[11] During the McCarthyism of the 1950s, a large sign was placed in the courtyard defending the artistic merit of the murals while attacking his politics as "detestable."
More than twenty-five MIT-affiliated artists added their individual contributions throughout spring 2017, culminating in a single, connected mural in May 2017. New murals and animations are added each semester. In addition to their work at MIT, the Borderline team has created AR animations for work by Takashi Murakami at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, and traveled to São Paulo, Brazil in summer 2018 to meet with artists and designers and create a collaborative work at the FabLab in the Porto Seguro Cultural Center. In 2018, Borderline was runner-up in HUB Madness, a competition for creative projects at the intersection of art, science, and tech in Boston, hosted by HUBweek.
Diogenes Francis of Assisi Jean-Jacques Rousseau William Godwin Henry David Thoreau John Ruskin Leo Tolstoy Peter Kropotkin Thorstein Veblen Mahatma Gandhi Aldous Huxley Theodor W. Adorno Herbert Marcuse Erich Fromm E. F. Schumacher Henri Lefebvre Pier Paolo Pasolini Jacques Ellul David Riesman John Kenneth Galbraith Cornelius Castoriadis Fredy Perlman Arne Næss Guy Debord Abbie Hoffman Murray Bookchin Ivan Illich André Gorz Pierre Bourdieu Jacque Fresco Jean Baudrillard Zygmunt Bauman George Carlin Benjamin Barber Noam Chomsky Jürgen Habermas Gary Snyder Fredric Jameson Raoul Vaneigem Herman Daly Michael Löwy George Ritzer Serge Latouche Ted Kaczynski Kalle Lasn John Zerzan Jeremy Rifkin Al Gore Slavoj Žižek Vandana Shiva Bernard Stiegler Jigme Singye Wangchuck Amy Goodman Jello Biafra Arundhati Roy Chuck Palahniuk Banksy Naomi Klein Julia Butterfly Hill M.I.A.
In 16th-century Europe, oil painting on canvas arose as an easier method for mural painting. The advantage was that the artwork could be completed in the artist's studio and later transported to its destination and there attached to the wall or ceiling. Oil paint may be a less satisfactory medium for murals because of its lack of brilliance in colour. Also the pigments are yellowed by the binder or are more easily affected by atmospheric conditions. The canvas itself is more subject to rapid deterioration than a plaster ground.[citation needed] Different muralists tend to become experts in their preferred medium and application, whether that be oil paints, emulsion or acrylic paints[8] applied by brush, roller or airbrush/aerosols. Clients will often ask for a particular style and the artist may adjust to the appropriate technique.[9]
Among minor artists who have made Berck a subject in their work are Paul Laugée (1853–1937);[37] Eugene Chigot (1860–1923),[38] who had a studio there in 1893; and Georges Maroniez,[39] a judge who painted and photographed in the area during holidays. Two others stayed in the town because of its medical facilities. Albert Besnard was there in 1895 on account of his tubercular son. As a thanks offering for his cure, Besnard and his wife Charlotte decorated the walls of the chapel in the Cazin-Perrochaud Institute between the years 1898-1901.[40] While he was there, he also executed oil paintings[41] and etchings.[42] Jean Laronze (see above) was also there in 1904 for the same reason and painted several canvases during his stay.[43]
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